Metal forging plays an important role in the manufacturing industry.

In this eBook, we will explain you all aspects of metal forging.

It is designed for both experts and non-experts in the forging industry.

We aim to provide you the basic and advanced foundation of metal forging.


In This Guide You’ll Learn

Chapter 1: Forging Definition(What is Forging)

Forging refers to a manufacturing process where materials are subjected to compressive forces/stress.

According to the Collins dictionary, it is the process of producing various parts by hammering.

The force changes the shape of the metal to form the desired shape.

The magnitude of the force will depend on the type of metal and type of machines among other factors.

Basically, forging is an example of deformation process.

The process is classified based on an environment the manufacturing process takes place.

Thus, it can be classified broadly as hot or cold forging. This refers to the metal forming temperature. (You will understand it in next chapter)
forging factory

Chapter 2: Forging Process

Traditional vs. modern forging process

This manufacturing technique has been around for years.

In fact, the tools that were used before Homo sapiens existed were produced by metal forging.

It is one of the oldest metal working arts.

At times, one may refer to it as primitive blacksmithIron Age.

In fact, these were very rudimentary tools ever created by the ancient man.

The early man depended on a rudimentary manufacturing process.

That is, they could deform material parts using bare hands.

old forging

Apparently, this no longer the case.

Why ?

This has been replaced by machines. It was during the industrial revolution that man adopted the use of machines.

Modern forging machines are effective and efficient.

They can forge both small and large equipment. That is, from small bolts to turbine rotors.

Forged Turbine Rotor
Despite being an ancient technology, it has been adopted even in the modern metal part manufacturing.

This is due to the wide range of benefits it has to offer.

Machines that are used in modern part processing are efficient, reliable and more sophisticated.

This guarantees a high level of accuracy and precision.

In fact, with these machines, it is possible to obtain very complex shapes.(like below one for brass parts)

brass forging parts
By deforming the work piece, one can create a desired geometrical shape.

This is due to the plastic deformation.

Normally, it is used to process all metals such as steel, iron, brass, etc.

In most industries, the individual metals must be tested to determine the technique that should be adopted.

Therefore, the technician or the engineer should understand the basic principles that govern the entire process.

It is important that you understand every aspect of the entire process to be able to make informed decisions.

Forging process refers to all the steps that engineers and technicians use to shape the metal into a desired shape.

In the modern manufacturing process, it is to produce complex shapes with minimal secondary operations.

At times, they may not be manufactured using a single metal forging technique.

This may involve a number of metal fabrication techniques.

metal fabrication
There are a number of factors you need to consider in any metal forging works.

Any technique adopted for a manufacturing process should relate to the exact specifications of the final product.

It is worth considering how a given technique will affect the final grain structure of the metal.

Check 3 most important ones:

  1. Complexity of the metal part.
  2. Types of material (metal).
  3. Technique to be used.

To get components with improved physical properties, it is important that the technique aims at refining  grain structure of the metals.

Normally, during plastic deformation,metals tend to change their structural composition.

That is, the orientation of  grain pattern may change.

During  forging process, metal can be subjected to a number of processes.

This aims to transform the material to a desired shape.

brass forging foundry

Some key operations include:

1.Forging Parts CAD Drawing

forging metal CAD drawing

Before any metal fabrication , to get an accurate component ,you will always need a CAD drawing to confirm all details like shape, size etc.Sometime you even need the  3 D print to see how your components will look like.

You also need a deep drawing to confirm the follow thing:

  1. Wall thickness of the final product.
  2. Degree of tolerance.
  3. Radius of the final product
  4. Work hardening

At times, deep drawing may not be a single process. It may involve a series of process such as: blanking, drawing, piercing and trimming.


upset-forging process

This forging technique is mainly used to increase the cross sectional area of  metal at the expense of  length.

Up-setting force can be applied in the direction that is parallel to the length axis.

It is commonly used in manufacturing processes such as  production of bolts.


Fullering- forging process

In this metal forging technique, the cross-sectional area of  metal decreases as the length of the metal is increased.

A reasonable amount of force is applied to the work piece when the bottom of the fuller is maintained at an angle hole.

At the same time, the stock  heated as the fuller top is kept above the stock.

This technique is commonly used to make the internal combustion of  engines.


forging-of-metals - Edging

It is one of the most common type of drop forging operation.

In this process, the metal is manipulated into the desired shape by striking it between two dies.

Generally, the metal flow is always confined in the horizontal direction.


bend the metal in forging process

This is one of the most common forging operations.

It is mainly needed for those parts that should be used near bends.


punching - forging process

Metal/material to be punched is placed on a hollow cylindrical die.

It is commonly used to produce holes in the work piece.

7.Forged welding

Forged welding

This is used to refer to the process of joining two metals.

It aims at increasing the length of metal.

You can achieve this through hammering or pressing.

The process is carried on a forging shop, hence the name forged welding.


This process is mainly used to separate materials into pieces.

In most cases, a hammer or chisel. It’s done when the metal is in red hot condition.

9.Flating & setting down

This forging technique is mostly used as secondary operations.

It is mainly used to eliminate the corrugated surface of the final product.

It is mainly used to obtain a smooth surface.


This manufacturing process is suitable in operations where the length of the final product should be reduced to a desired shape.

It involves the use of rapid hammer blows.

In most cases, the final product has a reduced cross section that can be used in threading, tapping or threading.
In summary, there is some of the most common metal forging process.

The choice of a particular process depends on the design and the quality of the final product.

Related Resources:

Types of Forging Processes

Video : Die forging process(open and closed die)

Video :Forging, Ring Rolling, Open-Die Forging, Hammer Forging

Hot Forging Vs. Cold Forging

Chapter 3: Forging Machines

There are quite a number of metal forging tools available.

The choice of a given tool will depend on the forging technique.

Furthermore, the type of forging machine and equipment forms an integral part when it comes to classifying different types of forging operations.
In normal industrial setup, there are  four basic types of machines.

  1. Drop hammer machines
  2. Screw press machines
  3. Crank press machines
  4. Hydraulic press machines

Forging Hammers/Drop Hammers

Forging hammers are classified as either broad or power hammer.

Working principle of these hammers is based on a potential energy that is converted to a kinetic energy and then to a deformation energy.

Broad hammer

The broad hammer

Broad hammer machine depends on the force of gravity.

This is one of the reasons why they are also referred to as the gravity drop hammers or drop hammers.

They are commonly used for the impression die forging manufacturing process.

These machines depend on the potential energy that is due to the force of gravity.

This implies that, the magnitude of force will depend on the weight of the hammer and the height.

In most cases, the height is typically less than 6 feet.

This is one of the main reasons why it is referred to as the energy restricted machine.
Depending on the design of  forging hammer, they can strike between 60 and 150 blows/minute.

However, this depends on both the capacity and the size of the hammer.

Again, the die used in this forging process are expensive.

Besides, metal can be subjected to thermal shock. This can affect the quality of  final part.

Power Hammer

forging hammers

Forging hammers have higher forging force.

Unlike Broad hammers, the total force is due to steam/air pressure plus gravitational force.

The pressure is an induced force during downward stroke which results in a higher acceleration.

Again,  the stem/air pressure can also be used to raise ram during the upstroke.

Other parameters will still remain the same as in the case of  broad hammers.

Forging Hammer Analysis

The efficiency and reliability of a forging hammer.

It is important to note that the energy of hammer generates is not used to deform the work piece 100%.

That is, a greater percentage deforms work piece while others are lost in the form of noise, foundation shock, noise and heat.

This makes it important to define the fraction of energy generated by hammer that is utilized efficiently.

Normally, the efficiency is defined by the magnitude of deformation that takes place during any stroke.

This can be defined in the range: 0.3≤ Ƞ ≤ 0.9. Where, Ƞ denotes the efficiency of the forging hammer.

hammer anlaysis
The efficiency of the forging hammer is based on the analysis of the amount of energy generated and the amount utilized.

That is:

The energy available in the hammer (E hammer) = (w + PA) H.

Where, w is the weight of the hammer, A is the area of the piston, P is the steam or air pressure while H is the drop height.

The energy necessary (high temperature) to forge the work piece (E strain) = σf ε V. Where σ is the true stress and ε is the true strain.

The Forging Presses

There are very many types of forging presses in the industry.

The most common types of presses are the mechanical and hydraulic presses.

These machines are mainly used in situations where:

1. Better properties of the final product are a necessity.

That is, where the final product should be homogeneous.

2. A deeper penetration is required.

However, it is important to note that the initial cost of the forging equipment is slightly expensive.

Hydraulic Presses

These machines use hydraulic pressure to move the piston.

This explains the reason why they are referred to as the load restricted machines.

They are mainly used in the extrusion-type forging operation.

This is because, the machine can attain a full press load at all points during the stroke.

These machines are also associated with longer contact time, especially at the die and metal interface.

This due to the slow speed.

In such situations, there’s a possibility of die deterioration and heat loss.

Hydraulic presses are more accurate.This is the main reason why they are used in applications that require very tight tolerances.

Again, it is worth noting that, they are more expensive than hammers and mechanical presses.

Mechanical Press Forging

These machines have crank presses with the ability to translate rotary motion to a reciprocating linear motion.

Depending on  specified requirements, this will result in a total energy that can forge a work piece.

That is,

Where W is the total energy required, I is the moment of inertia of the flying wheel, ω is the angular velocity, ωo is the original value while the ωf is after the deformation of the work piece.

Mechanical presses are distinguished by the fact that, their ram stroke is relatively shorter than either the hydraulic press or hammer.

In most cases, these presses are always rated based on the magnitude of force they can develop at the end of each stroke.

In general, these are the two main types of forging presses.

Again, the efficiency and quality of the final product will depend on selecting the right die.

More importantly, it will depend on press sizing.

Most presses that are available in the market can attain as high as 60,000 tons.

In most cases, establishing the right force should be based on the following key criteria:

  • Determine the flow stress of the entire process. (Y)
  • Estimate an average strain rate.
  • Determine the plan view area of the section/part.This should also include the flash land (A)
  • Choose a multiplying factor, say (K).

This should be based on complexity of the part.

Normally, it should be within this range 6≤ K ≤ 10.

Therefore, the force required to forge a part can be determined by K*Y*A.

In addition to these, the forging machines have different values of velocity.

That is:

  1. Gravity drop hammer operates between 3.6 and 4.8 ms-1.
  2. Hydraulic press has a velocity between 0.06 and 0.30 ms-1.
  3. Mechanical presses have a velocity of 0.06 to 1.5 ms-1.
  4. Power drop hammer has a velocity between 3.0 and 9.0 ms-1.

It is upon the technician to choose one that meets the requirement of a given application.

This should be based on speed, force it can attain, accuracy and efficiency.

Related Sources:

Drop Forging Hammers

 Forging Machinery

Chapter 4: Forging Materials You Should Know


Metal forging companies can choose from a wide range of materials.

The choice of a particular material is based on specific application of every part.

This implies, one has to be very specific on chemical and physical properties of the individual metals.

Below are some of the most common metals for forging 

Brass forging

brass forging parts manufacturer

Brass is one of the most popular alloys that can be forged.

This is mainly due to the fact that it can be shaped to the desired shape easily.

Brass  is known for its good formability and high thermal properties.

It is a copper alloy that offers a wide range of benefits and has been incorporated in a number of applications.


  • Possible to achieve a high degree of dimensional precision.
  • Easy to achieve zero draft forging.But not always practical in most circumstances.
  • Forged brass parts have improved strength. That’s why they are used for hydraulic pumps, some gears and bearings.
  • Corrosion resistant, it makes them suitable for chemical processing industries.
  • Pressure tight, hence, they are commonly used in high pressure liquid and gas handling.A number of brass forged parts include refrigeration components, pipe fittings, commercial valves, etc.
  • Forged components have a porosity free structure.
  • Easy clean and easy to achieve superior surface finish.

These are some of the main reasons why brass is commonly used in a number of industrial applications.

The forging brass, identified as C37700 is rated 100%. It is the most forgeable. Others contain 35% to 40% of zinc are rated at 90%.


Steel forging

Steel forging
There are quite a number of alloy steel forging that are used in different manufacturing industries.

Some of the most popular alloys include the 4140, 4130 and 4340. There are other types of steels with nearly the same chemical and physical properties. However, there are some variations based on the elements contained.

steel for forging
Steel forging companies can choose from three main types of steels:

1. Carbon steels

Carbon steels have similar properties of iron. Adding more carbon makes it difficult to weld or deform and cracks easily.Which will make it difficult to forge.

2. Alloy steels

Alloy steels have greater strength, hardness, wear resistance and enhanced toughness. Often you may need additional heat treatment to achieve all these.

3. Stainless steels

Stainless steels contain higher amount of chromium. They are corrosion resistant and  do not rust.
It is upon the metal fabrication technician to opt for a metal that suits a specific application.

That is, one they can be transformed without exerting extreme forces.

To forge steel, the technicians can adopt cold, warm and hot.

By adopting  right technique, metal forging company can produce stronger and durable steel parts than cast or machined parts.


With right forging technique , steel parts will possess the following key properties:

  • Good toughness
  • Fine austenitic grain size
  • Advanced strength
  • Superior surface quality.

Forged steel parts are used in a wide range of applications that may include manufacturing cranes, cables, hydraulic press, shafts and axles for drives.

These parts are used in production, automotive and chemical manufacturing industries.

Aluminum forging

Most common aluminum alloys include 1100, 7079, 7175 and 7475.

Aluminum has become popular across very many industries due to its light weight.Check one list from slideshare .

Aluminum application
Aluminum forging is popular due to the superior physical and chemical properties.

  • Does not oxidize quickly
  • Resistance to corrosion
  • Malleability,
  • Good strength to weight ratio
  • Durability has a great article for the Aluminum properties,check it here :

physical and chemical properties

Some of the main reasons why aluminum forging is highly recommended in most industries include:

So why aluminum is highly recommended in most industries ?

Dig it with the following 5 points:

1. High strength to weight ratio.

This makes it a perfect choice for a number of applications such as automotive, wheels, airframes and panels.

2. Superior corrosion resistance

Aluminum forged parts do corrode, even when they’re subjected to most adverse weather conditions.

This is the main reason why they are used in the petrochemical and marine industries. In fact, most fasteners in these industries are manufactured from aluminum.

3. Wear resistance and durability

This makes it a perfect choice for most automotive industry applications.

4. It is a versatile metal that be manufactured with a wide range of metal forging processes.

5. Its soft compared to other materials such as iron. This reduces the production cost.

Iron forging

Iron forging auto parts

Like other metals, iron forging is also popular across very many industries.

Iron  parts are used to manufacture and upgrade components.

With the required equipment, they can be crafted/manipulated to meet the exact requirements of the end user.


In most industries, iron is considered a super alloy. This is due to the fact that, the forged parts are mainly used in high temperature applications.

Iron forged parts are less expensive as compared to other alloys such as the nickel or cobalt-based alloys.

In addition to these, the iron based alloys can be hot or cold worked. This will depend on the final physical and chemical properties that one wishes to achieve.

iron properties
Iron forging is a manufacturing technique used to produce parts that should meet the following key criteria:

  • In high-temperature applications – this is mainly common in industrial setup such as the automotive industries, power plant or boiler.
  • Increased strength, such in the construction of cranes.
  • They are resistant to corrosion, oxidation, wear or creep.

It is important to note that the wear resistance increases with the quantity of carbon.

For instance, 611, 612 and 613 are mainly used to forge high-temperature aircraft bearings.

That is, those machine components that are subjected to any form of sliding contact.

Choosing a particular type of iron alloy for any forging process should be based on the desired applications.

Copper forging

Copper forging

Copper and its alloys used in a number of industrial applications.

This is due to its excellent electrical and heat conductivity properties.

It is known for its non-magnetic, corrosion resistance, machinability, ductility, malleability and wear resistance.

Forged copper parts are a perfect choice in applications where there’s higher temperatures and at a higher load.

Again, the parts can withstand high stress without unexpected failures.
In most cases, Forged copper parts are highly recommended.

Why ?

  • Electrical assemblies and transmission lines such as caps, connectors and fittings
  • Electronic components such as connectors, heat sinks, etc
  • Plumbing components such as impellers and valve components.
  • Gaskets and seals, especially those that are used in high temperature and corrosive environment.
  • Power plants
  • Fittings for high pressure applications, among other components.

Stainless steel forging

Stainless steel  for forging

Stainless steel, which is available in 304, 314, 316 and 403,can be open die forged into different shapes.

There are about 200 grades of stainless steel to choose from.

This leaves die casting companies with a wide range of options to choose from.

In normal industrial setup, parts that can be obtained include: copper discs, shafts, rings, plates, etc.


Check Why Stainless steel is mainly used in a number of applications :

1. The forged stainless steel parts can withstand sanitizing and frequent cleaning; this is one of the main reasons why it is used in the food processing and medical equipment.
2. Highly resistant to corrosion; this is the main reason why it is used in petrochemical, marine and chemical industries, especially in pumps. These parts can withstand prolonged exposure to corrosive environment.
3. The forged parts have high resistance to heat. This makes it a perfect choice for furnace, heat sinks and ovens.
4. They guarantee high wear and high performance. This explains the reason why they are used for landing gears and motor components.
5. The forged parts have high stability and strength. This makes it a perfect choice for most structural components.

In short, stainless steel is one of the most popular materials used to manufacture a number of industrial parts. This is because having some of the best physical and chemical properties.

Related Resources:

Forging Materials: Plain-Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels

Forging Tooling and Materials

Chapter 5: Forging Advantages and Disadvantages

Applying a compressive force at specific temperatures has both advantages and disadvantages.

It is one of those manufacturing process that depend on temperature.

Ideally, the main advantages and disadvantages of the process can be discussed based on the type of the forging process.

That is,

whether it is hot forging or cold forging. May be, we need to clarify these terms first before we look at the advantages and disadvantages of each process.

The two processes are slightly different, however, they produce the same results.

Hot forging

Hot forging

Metal is heated to a temperature above the recrystallization temperature.

A desirable compressive force is applied to manipulate metal to a desired shape.

During this period, the metal is subjected to a number of strain hardening effects.

The temperature will depend on the metal to be forged.

For example:

  • Copper alloys require between 710 and 800 degrees.
  • Steel alloys require between 1100 and 1150 degrees.
  • Aluminum alloys require between 350 and 520 degrees.

Cold forging

The metal is subjected to compressive forces at temperatures below the recrystallization temperature.

This is actually the opposite of hot forging.

Normally, it’s the room temperature. The most common process that is used is the impression-die casting. It is a perfect choice for soft metals.

Advantages of hot forging

1. The parts have increased ductility and strength; this makes them a perfect choice for most applications.
2. Flexibility; hot forging is more flexible than cold forging. This is because customized parts can be manufactured easily.
3. Superior surface finish; this allows for a number of finishing operations such as painting, coating or polishing.
4. High temperature removes any homogeneous substances. This is due to the increased diffusion.
5. There is a reduction in the pore size.

Disadvantages of hot forging

Like other manufacturing processes, this process has certain disadvantages.

  • Hot forged parts tend to have less precise dimensional tolerance
  • Grain structure of the final metal may vary. This may be due to the reaction between the material and the surrounding environment.
  • Warping may occur during the cooling process, hence, the cooling should take place under controlled environment.
  • There could be varied metal structure.

Advantages of cold forging

This forging technique is used in most industries.

Check the advantages below :

  • Most cold forged parts do not require any secondary operations.
  • It is cost effective and not labor intensive.
  • Smooth surface finish due to less impurities.
  • It’s a precise manufacturing process

Disadvantages of cold forging

This manufacturing process may not be adopted in certain applications due to 4 reasons :

  1. Less ductile making them unappropriated for certain applications.
  2. There are chances of residual stress occurring. This because the strength of the material depends on the grain structure
  3. Requires powerful and heavy machinery.
  4. Surface of the metal must be cleaned before  forging process starts.

Therefore, it is important that one evaluates both the advantages and disadvantages of the two processes.

This is an effective way to adopt a reliable, efficient and cost effective metal forging technique.

Related Resources :

Advantages and disadvantages of closed die forging

Chapter 6: Types of Forging

In die forging, metals are deformed by applying either gradual load or impact load.

Again, the orientation of the work piece (metal) may also be different.

All these aim to achieve a different constraint on flow and material flow by the die or punch.

Based on these, we may classify die forging die forging processes as:

Open die forging

Open die forging

Open die forging is  process of plastically deforming the metal by subjecting to a series of compressive forces.

Normally, the die do not completely enclose the material.

Dies, which is also referred to as the hammer, deform materials through a series of movements.
Forgings that can be obtained from this process may range from a few pounds to 150 tons.

In fact, more sophisticated machines can forge even larger parts. Normally, the work piece is held between flat faced dies.
Generally, all forgeable non-ferrous and ferrous alloys can be processed through this manufacturing process.

In most industrial applications, they are mainly used for short run forgings.

Nearly all products forged through open die forging technique require secondary operations.
In most cases, the metal may be heated above the recrystallization temperature.

Basically, this is referred to as the hot forging.

Again, the final forged part should be heated several times before one gets the desired product.

Furthermore, it’s a process that is suitable for simple parts.

These may include discs, sleeves, shafts, cylinders or shafts. Since the products is deformed repeatedly, the final product has an improved grain structure.

Such components are stronger, improved fatigue resistance and reduced voids.

In an advanced metal forging process, the open die forging can be tailored to meet different requirements.

That is, optimal deformation and grain flow.

Basically, it aims to ensure optimal performance and maximize on the desirable properties.

One such application is the internal gear blank.

Related Resource :


N.Prakasan Slide share documents : forming process forging

Video : Die forging process(open and closed die)

Drop forging

Drop forging

This is a process of shaping a metal part by forcing it into a contours of a die.

It requires a significant amount of force that can be as high as 2000 tons.

In most cases, the drop forging operation can be performed under two main conditions:

1. Metal can be heated to temperature above the recrystallization temperature. This is always referred to as hot forging. This eliminates the work hardening problems.

2. Temperature is below the recrystallization temperature. This is typically referred to as the cold forging.
Apart from these, adopting a desirable manufacturing process/technique is also important.

There are two types of drop forging 

1. Open die drop forging

Also referred to as the free forging. In this metal forging, metal is subjected to a compressive force without being confined within dies.

Most forged parts require machining.

2. Closed die forging

Metal part is confined between two dies: upper and lower die.

A reason why it is also referred to as the impression die forging. It produces near net shapes.

Related Source:

Video: Drop Forging process

Drop Forging – Introduction

Why do tools have “Drop Forged” stamped on them?

Forging Course from nptel

Press Forging

Press Forging

Press forging process can be carried out in cold, warm and hot conditions.

The process varies slightly from the drop-hammer forging in that, the work piece is subjected to a slow but continuous force.

No need for the heavy and quick blows. In fact, the time  tool gets in contact with work piece is longer – about several seconds.

This process is highly recommended for applications that require very precise parts.

Press forging has become popular across very many industries. It changes both surface and interior of work piece.

In contrary, drop forging only deforms the surface. This process is more controlled, thus, it becomes easy to examine crucial aspects of the forging process.

A good example is examining the strain rate. The process is also efficient and reliable. In addition to these, in press forging, the energy is optimally utilized.

Related Resource

The Advantages and Disadvantages of Press Forging

Video : 13000 Ton large forging press

What is the difference between press forging and drop hammer forging?

Upset forging

Upset forging

Upset forging is also a common manufacturing technique used in a number of industries.

Major applications include torsion bars, holding rods, eye bolts, etc.

This process plastically deforms the metal under high pressure thus, it’s possible to achieve high strength parts.

In this process, the preheat metal is held between the grooved dies. The pressure is applied to end of the bar in the direction of the metal’s axis.

Several upsetting operations can be carried out to deform the metal gradually.

Quite a number of forging machines that are used in this process operate in a horizontal plane.

Benefits of Hot Upset Forging

  1. Chances of fractures are eliminated.
  2. Final product is neither porous nor brittle.
  3. No stress are created.
  4. Final product maintains an inherent strength.

Related Resource :

Heading Or Upset Forging

Video: EBC Industries – Upset Forging Animation

Roll forging

Roll forging

In roll forging, two curved dies are used to deform the metal.

Normally, these are two opposing rollers that subject work piece to a desired compressive force that is just enough to deform it.
This process is carried out above the recrystallization temperature ( hot forging process).

As the rolls rotate, they tend to squeeze the work piece thus deforming it.

Again, the final shape of the forged products will be similar to that of the dies.

It is exactly the same scenario in the forging processes discussed above.

Benefits of Roll Forging

  1. Increased the lifespan of the die thus, significant cost saving.
  2. High productivity.
  3. Cost saving in terms of reducing the amount of rejects and energy consumption.
  4. Quality finishes.

Related Resources:

Roll Forging

Video : Ring Roll Forging

Hot-Rolling, Cold-Forming, Extruding and Forging

Chapter 7: Difference Between Casting and Forging

Both casting and forging are essential manufacturing processes in metal fabrication industry.

Choice of a particular process will mainly depend on the specific manufacturing objectives one would wish to achieve.

In most cases, people tend to confuse casting and forging manufacturing processes.

In this section, we shall define each manufacturing process.

We shall also highlight some of the main reasons why you need to adopt a specific casting or forging for a given application.


In metal casting, metal is heated to a molten state, poured into a mold to create a desired shape.

Distinct facts about casting

  1. Casting is suitable for large and intricate parts that are cannot be forged. Forging larger components is expensive.
  2. Tooling costs are less expensive than the forging dies.
  3. Highly recommended for small production run.
  4. No real upper size limit in casting weight.

Forging is the process of manipulating the shape of a metal by subjecting it to compressive forces.

Unlike the metal casting process, in this process, we don’t need to melt the metal. A die is used to transform the metal into a desired shape and size.
Distinct facts about forging

  1. A high compressive force is required to forge a metal.
  2. Good uniformity in the structure of the final product due to metallurgical recrystallization and grain.
  3. Parts are stronger than cast parts.
  4. Forging eliminates porosity, shrinkage, cold pours and cavities. A common problem with cast parts.
  5. Forged parts have higher tensile strength – about 26% higher
  6. Higher fatigue strength – 37% greater than cast parts.

Above are clear differences between forging and casting. Manufacturers should choose a technique based on quality of final products.


Relate Source :

Difference Between Casting & Forging

Forging vs. Casting: Which is better?

Steel Fabrications vs. Castings

Forged Versus Cast Irons – Is One Better Than The Other?

Chapter 8: Precision Forging Applications & Products

Companies have invested in precision forging alongside other open-die forging techniques.

It’s due to increasing demand for forged products.

Items include components used in both light and heavy machines that are used in different industries.

Examples of applications are:

Automotive parts

Automotive parts

This is one of those industries that has benefited from this industry.

Products include complex shapes that have been manufactured either through cold or hot forging.

Examples of parts include: automatic and manual transmission systems, steering parts, engine parts, etc.

Aerospace industry

Aerospace industry

Like the automotive industry, there are a number of forged parts that are used in this industry.

Examples include: inner-outer ring, taper roller bearing outer ring, bearing and other engine and transmission parts.

Others include engine discs, compressor parts, exhaust, spinners and other aircraft structural parts.

Power generation and transmission industry

Power generation and transmission industry

Forged parts include turbine components, discs, shafts, seamless pipes and fittings, just to mention a few.

Generally, nearly 43% of the parts that are used in this industry are manufactured through forging.

General production and manufacturing industry

General production and manufacturing industry

Forged precision parts include: bars, welding products, gaskets, washers, etc. This is mainly due to their structural integrity.

Medical industry

Medical industry

A number of medical equipment are forged. These include trauma parts, extremities parts, implants and medical machine parts.
Generally, precision forging has become part of our daily life.

All that matters is the ability to get quality products that can meet the specific requirements of the end users.

The technology is still improving and soon, we’ll have even better engine parts and equipment.

Chapter 9: Forging Industry Associations

metal forging Association


Like other professions, a number of stakeholders and companies have formed associations that oversee how people go about their business in the forging industry.

Again, their mandate is to set rules that everyone in the industry should follow.

Moreover, they provide educational materials and avenues of connecting all metal forging companies globally.

Association Of Indian Forging Industry

Association Of Indian Forging Industry

This association aims at promote the interest of the forging industry in India.

Apparently, there are over 173 ordinary members and about 45 Associate Members of the Association. The members include corporations, companies, person or firms.

The Association of Indian Forging Industry (AIFI) aims to promote interest of forging industry.

It puts more emphasis on manufacturing and other fabrication processes.

AIFI enhances skills and promotes professionalism. This is through educational videos and publications.

AIFI also participate in both national and international seminars. Soon, members will also be able to advertise with AIFI.

Forging Industry Association

Forging Industry Association

The Forging Industry Association (FIA) aims to connect producers, suppliers, designers, buyers and students.

FIA provides a wide range of information aiming to increase global competitiveness in the forging industry.

It provides opportunities within the industry: career information, forge shop information and learning material. There’s membership services too.


China Forging Industry Association

China Forging Industry Association

It has about 450 forging operations. This accounts for about 90% of total forging production in China.

China Forging Industry Association (CFIA), is part of the Confederation of Chinese Metalforming Industry (CCMI).

The membership consist of learning institutions and metal forming enterprises/companies.

Like of other metal forging associations, CFIA strives to ensure quality manufacturing process.

CFIA organizes conferences, exhibitions, publishes magazines, oversees research and avails learning resources.

The association champions for cost effective and sustainable forging processes.
Generally, there are many forging associations in the world today.

It is important that one becomes a member of this a forging association, especially those who are in the forging industry.
Metal forging is an integral part of any manufacturing process in the modern industrial setup.

It is important that one chooses an effective a reliable technique based on the specific requirements of the end user.

When you know all aspects of metal forging , you will benefit a lot if your product parts made from the metal forging process.

Now it’s turn,leave a comment and tell me what you think about metal forging.